How Human-Wildlife Co-Exist in Mara-Serengeti Baffles Many

Photo by Lip Kee – Creative Commons


Mara-Serengeti is a coined word that combines two of the world’s greatest natural wildlife reserves in the Savannah land. Mara-Serengeti is a region that spreads across two East African Countries – Kenya and Tanzania and is one continuous reserve only separated by a common border – The Mara River.  The northern part of this reserve that is within Kenya is known as Mara while the southern part which rests within Tanzania is known as the Serengeti.

The spectacular Wildebeest migration has been termed as a Seventh Wonder of the world, and who can argue. Other than Wildebeests, Mara-Serengeti is a rich natural habitat for some of the world’s most ferocious animals. This is also home of the ‘King of the jungle’ – the lion. Other than lions, we can also find leopards, cheetahs and hyenas. Mara-Serengeti is also home to the biggest land mammal – the elephant and the tallest mammal – the giraffe.

The habitat is also home to some of the most poisonous snakes around such as the puff udder, cobra, and black mamba and its river is dotted with a most ferocious fresh water reptile – the crocodile.Indeed, the Mara River works the same way for the Wildebeests as the River Ganges does to the Buddhists or even as the River Jordan did to the Israelites during the Exodus. It is a kind of a ‘holy river’ to freedom.Other than the wildlife, this habitat is also endowed with ably gifted people – the Maasai.

The Maasai community blends so naturally with the wild of Mara-Serengeti. The Maasai are one of the most versatile, brave and wildly of people not only in East Africa but almost the entire African continent.Many people who visit the Maasai Mara are always puzzled: How have the Maasai managed to adapt to this tough environment where not only dangerous animals inhabit but also living under a scorching? On close examination it would seem the Maasai have adopted some of the wildlife habits themselves, not only for survival but also for leisure and enjoyment.

For example, in this photo, you can see how tall a Maasai can jump fixatedly.

Maasai Jumping High
Photo by Wendylin20 Creative Commons

Observing the movements of a jumping Maasai, you would realize that they do have striking resemblance to the movement of a giraffe. Before a Maasai makes this jump, he vigorously thrusts his chest in back-and-forth motion as if inhaling and exhaling while at the same time he moves the head up and down rhythmically to coincide with the chest motion.When watching them dance there is striking resemblance in their body motion to that of a giraffe except of course that they are jumping on two legs and not walking on four legs, as a giraffe does.Other than their jumping styles which mimic those of a Giraffe, attending a Maasai initiation ceremony(if you’re fortunate enough!), you will also discover that the Maasai initiation ceremony works more or less the same as that of congregation of Wildebeests before crossing the Mara River. They gather together in the same way wildebeests do.

 

And as the Maasai engage in the rite of passage into adulthood where they are expected to be ready for procreation, so do wildebeests migrate to greener pastures where they can mate and reproduce. The purpose for the rite of passage of the Maasai – procreation and that of the Wildebeests – reproduction are strikingly similar.Though the initiation of the Maasai into adulthood involves circumcision, after which both the Maasai men and women are left to inhabit the open field with freedom to hunt, gather and mate.

Same wise, Wildebeests migrate from Maasai Mara into Serengeti to gather greener pastures and mate. A noticeable difference being that Wildebeests do not hunt as they are herbivores.When it comes to devouring their hunt, the Maasai has been known to mimic the habits of  lions, as can be seen on YouTube (a bit too graphic to post here!).  The Maasai are known to feast on raw blood and milk from live animals as they herd them too. In fact, a Maasai Moran (A Moran is a young male Maasai) can herd cattle more than 100 miles away from their home and can take several months without getting back home. While on herding mission, the Moran only carry a gourd for fermenting milk and a special handle-held shield-like stool for both defense and sitting in the grazing field.As you can see the Mara-Serengeti is such a diverse habitat, one where man and beast co-exist to this day, without the trappings of modern western civilizations.

I’d encourage you to check out the various Maasai rituals, hunts and initiations on YouTube, they make for wonderfully watching.

The Red Panda

Shining Cat, Firefox, Himalayan Raccoon, Red Cat-Bear – the poetic-sounding names which have been given to the red panda lend as much to the mystery of this species as the secretive nature of the animal itself.

The Origins of the Red Panda Is it a cat or is it a bear, and why are some people concerned that the red panda will become extinct? To find out, we have to start by looking at what we know about the origins of this species.

Frederic Cuvier, a French zoologist was to take the honour of giving the red panda its scientific name in 1825 (Ailurus fulgens), although it was another European who first described these mysterious animals. English Major-General Thomas Hardwicke resided in India between the late 1770s to 1823. Throughout his military service, he was able to observe a vast number of species in various regions of the country. It seems that the keen naturalist was one of the earliest

Westerners to see the red panda, and although his paper on the species (which he called the Wah , a local name given for its call) was written before Cuvier’s description, it was not published until much later. Hardwicke is also given credit for noting that the Nepalese called these creatures “nigalya poonya”, meaning eater of bamboo. Etymologists think that, like the old game of Chinese Whispers, poonya became panda as the word was passed from one person to another. Incidentally, this is probably where some of the confusion over the connection between the red panda and the giant panda lies – both of these species eat bamboo, so logic says they both must be pandas, right?

Various theories have been presented as to which taxonomic group the red panda fits into as scientists have tried to solve this riddle. Originally, naturalists believed that the red panda was part of the raccoon family (Procyonidae) due to shared characteristics including jaw-shape and distinctive ringed tail.

After the discovery of the giant panda in 1869, similarities between the two species led some to hypothesise that they were the same family and both should be classed as bears (Ursidae). This theory was accepted until fairly recently, when evidence to the contrary was unearthed. Fossilised panda remains dating back to 25 million years ago have shown that the red panda’s predecessors range was much more extensive than it is today. Studies into these fossils suggest that although the red panda and giant panda do have certain connections, it is a case of convergent evolution (originating at the same point but evolving in two distinct and different forms).

Most taxonomists now agree that the is now the only living red panda representative of the family Ailuridae. Furthermore, two sub-species of Ailuridae have been identified. Ailuridae fulgens, the variant which was named by Cuvier, which is slightly smaller and darker red colour with distinctive facial markings, and Styani with its thick winter coat and black markings, which was described by FW Styan.

The Red Panda in the Wild

Both red panda sub-species are very similar in appearance with subtle differences in size and colouring. Weighing in at between three and six kilos, an adult red panda has a head and body length between 56-52cm in length, with the bushy tail adding between 28-49cm. The distinctive mask-like white markings on the face, whiskers and triangle shaped ears are reminiscent of a cat, while the reddish colouration of the fur is fox-like , so it is not difficult to see why the origins of the red panda have been so difficult to ascertain.

While red pandas once may have roamed throughout Europe and America, the population of this species is now lives in a very limited range. The sub-species Styani is found in Northern Myanmar, the Hengduan Mountains and East Nuijiang River in China, at elevations of approximately 1,500 – 4000m. In Nepal, North East India and Bhutan are home to the red panda sub-species identified as Fulgens. These regions are mountainous and cloaked with forests with abundant bamboo, which is the staple food-stuff for this unique creature.

are red pandas endangered
Photo By Adrian Pingstone [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
In terms of behaviour, red pandas are tree-dwellers which tend to be most active at night. Feeding mainly on bamboo shoots supplemented by berries, flowers, bird eggs and insects, the red panda spend nearly half of each day foraging and much of the remaining time resting. Bamboo is a foodstuff which is low in nutrients and only a quarter of the food consumed is absorbed, so red pandas need to eat around one third of their body-weight daily. Surprisingly, considering their diet, a red panda’s digestive system is closer to that of a carnivore. The gut is short, allowing food to pass through the body quickly, whereas herbivores usually have a longer gut which contains microbes to aid digestion. However, the red panda does have some physical adaptations which have evolved to improve its ability to eat bamboo – from the strong jaw and heavy molars which allow them to crush and chew tough shoots to a “thumb” bone at the wrist which allows them to grasp stems more efficiently.

In general, red pandas are a solitary species and each adult has its own home territory with an area of between two and five kilometres. Little is known about the reproduction and breeding of red pandas in the wild, though it is thought that this is one of the only times when this species spends time in groups. Both females and males employ courtship behaviour, leaving olfactory messages with their scent glands and performing a variety of twittering calls to attract a mate. After mating, the female builds a nest and following a pregnancy of around 135 days, the cubs are born.

Litters can vary from between one and four young, with the average number of cubs produced by captive red pandas being two. The young stay with the mother until the next breeding season, by which time they are fully grown and ready to survive alone.

Sound of a Red Panda Twittering 

Threats & Conservation
The red panda is now classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and the available data suggests that the number of this species are in decline. While zoos across the globe have had varying success with red panda breeding programmes, wild red pandas face a number of threats and estimates of the total population stand at less than 10,000. Some ecologists believe that the true number of individuals left in the wild is closer to 2,500.

Asian Red Dog Threat to Red Pandas
Photo by Ralf Schmode

Predation by species including the Asiatic wild dog, eagles and leopards is natural – after all, red pandas are below these species in the food-chain. Competition for food is also a factor to be considered, with bamboo rats and macaque monkeys amongst those who also rely on bamboo to survive. However, by far the greatest dangers to the red panda are as a result of human behaviour.

Illegal hunting of red panda for their pelts(even within protected reserves) is of extreme concern to conservationists and although the practice of gifting red panda fur hats to newly married couples has almost died out, it does still continue within certain religions. Some reports also suggest that red panda is now being served as a delicacy in Chinese restaurants. Logging and clearing of land for farming and construction has also played a significant role in the destruction of the red panda environment. In the meantime, the effects of global warming and climate change have had an impact on plant growth in the bamboo forests that these animals rely on to survive.

The Red Panda in the Future
As the habitat of the red panda becomes smaller and their food supplies become more limited, it may seem that there is little that can be done to help this unique species. Despite this, growing awareness of the red panda in the Western world – from providing Mozilla’s inspiration for the name of their internet browser Firefox to the option of choosing to be represented by a red panda character in the role-playing game World of Warcraft : Mists of Pandalia, means that more people are learning of this species predicament. Zoos, animal sanctuaries and wildlife charities are also doing what they can to educate the public about the red panda, in particular running donation schemes with the aim of making funding available to employ local rangers to implement anti-poaching laws in the reserves where the red pandas live.

We still know relatively little about the red panda’s life in the wild and only by doing what we can to preserve their habitat and prevent poaching will we ever get the chance to discover all of their secrets once and for all

Main photo credit by By Dave Pape (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

The Narwhal

The Mysterious Narwhal.

Opening statement: Reticent medium-sized tusked-whale causing no end of mystery.

Name: If you’re named by the Vikings chances are you’ll have a rather foreboding moniker. The word narwhal comes from the Viking nar, meaning corpse, referring to the narwhale’s mottled grey skin.

Narwhals breach
Photo By Glenn Williams (National Institute of Standards and Technology) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Aliases: Monodon monoceros; a.k.a. Moon whale; a.k.a Unicorn of the sea. Neighbourhood: The Arctic.Distinguishing features: The tusk sticking from its snout is an elongated tooth. The narwhal then is a toothed whale or odontoceti (see also dolphin, sperm whale). But what a tooth. All males have these ivory ‘tusks’ that grow to about half the length of its own body, and about 15% of females have them, which are much shorter.(For more amazing tusk facts see ‘More amazing tusk facts.) It is important to understand all numbers are educated estimates because much of what the narwhal does is in inhospitable areas for human study. Furthermore, the narwhal’s skill-set is very niche-specific; any taken into captivity have subsequently died.Vital statistics: Full-grown narwhals can grow between, approximately, 13ft to 18ft in length. Thus with tusks, males can measure between 18ft to 28ft which, in the language of the deep, is ‘as long as the longest killer whale.’ Adult body-weight ranges from 1,500 to 3,500 lb. Again, in the language of the deep this is ‘up to four massive jetskis’, or if you prefer in metric, ‘20 pirate’s treasure-chests’. Me Hearties.Behaviour: The narwhal is migratory, at least until it dies when it becomes transmigratory (citation needed).  A good poem is transmigratory and here is an excerpt of ‘Enigmas’ by Pablo Neruda,You question me about the wicked tusk of the narwhal,
and I reply by describing how the sea unicorn with the harpoon in it dies. The narwhal spends winters in small groups (5 to 10) beneath deep pack-ice hoping polar bears don’t bop them on the head when they come up for air. Summers are spent in large congregations (500 to 1000) in the shallower waters off coasts (Canada or Greenland) where they’re prone to Inuits on a subsistence hunt for whom narwhal skin has vital fats and vitamins. 

Shelf life: It is estimated the narwhal can live up to 50 years.

Arctic-shelf life: Well funnily enough, 50 years. It is estimated arctic summer ice will hang around until 2060, maybe 2080, then all bets are off. Whether you believe global-warming is man-made or actually a conspiracy of the gods against the narwhal, the fact is that the narwhal’s habitat is about to change for good. A narwhal born today, all 5 ft 175 Ibs of orca food, and that lives to 50, will see more change in its life than all its ancestors put together (citation needed).

The 21st century theme: Potential catastrophe for the narwhal will be the result of a, probably short-lived, battle between Evolution and Revolution. Let’s break it down: the narwhal is a concoction of specialized evolution. It has a very narrow diet of halibut, cod, shrimp and squid and in their pursuit has become a streamlined, super-sleek sea-predator that can dive as far as its vegetarian whale counterparts (800 to 1,500m).

It’s, take a bow narwhal, the only predator to triumph in the deep beneath the vast swathes of pack-ice with as little as 5% open water. Evolution has made a beauty, but evolution’s slow place and tinkering for millennia is doubtless no short-term match for the speedily approaching revolution in the planet’s ecosystem. 

Pessimistic much? The human response to the melting arctic has been decadent to say the least. Unfortunately for narwhal fans everywhere, and of course fans of as much world peace as possible please, the arctic looks set to become a theatre in which empires play for resources. There has been a recent breach in the arctic’s neutrality and flags nailed into the ice as competing empires and their resource-extraction companies circle the territory, fins out.In the meantime, peer-reviewed scientific evidence regarding systemic catastrophe gets distracted in abstract fisticuffs with other theories pushed around by vested interests. For example, the discovery of an ancient narwhal fossil in deep pack-ice suggests the arctic used to be warmer and means global warming is part of nature’s cycle. Hurrah for the oilmen!

Some timely fantasy: Throughout the middle-ages anyone who was anyone wanted a unicorn horn. Unicorns had all kinds of magic powers and short of riding one bareback to Arcadia, owning the horn was the next best thing. This was lucky for traders of the narwhal tusk which sold for loadsamoney; Queen Elizabeth had one, and most of the unicorn horns displayed in the many and very popular ‘cabinet of curiosities’ touring Europe at the time have later been identified as narwhal tusks.

Narwhal Horn
Photo by Brian Suda

More amazing tusk facts: Hollow, slightly flexible, very mysterious. What’s it for? At the theories pick n’ mix you can choose: establishing dominance in groups; breaking sea-ice; or my favourite, for better picking up song – in the underwater X Factor narwhals are among the most accomplished, their song a complicated come-hither of clicks, whistles and pops.

Closing argument: The narwhal teaches us that less is more. Save the Narwhals, Long live the Narwhal.Narwhal Breach photo by Glenn Williams (National Institute of Standards and Technology) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons